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CAAML V6.0 Profile - Snow Profile IACS
CAAML / Schemas / Snow Profile IACS


The CAAML V6.0 Profile 'IACS Snow Profile' aims to facilitate the exchange of snow profile information among practitioners and researchers. This standard only contains the subset of CAAML elements needed for exchanging snow profiles. Following The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground (Fierz et al., 2009) published by International Association for Cryospheric Sciences (IACS), the standard defines the core observation elements for snow profiles including their enumerations and value ranges.


Current Standard (published Jul. 28, 2023)

Other Versions

Previous version: 5.0
Next version: n/a


This CAAML standard was developed by:

  • Pascal Haegeli, Avisualanche Consulting (lead author)
  • Roger Atkins
  • Matthias Gerber, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF
  • Johannes Hörtnagel, Tyrolean Avalanche Warning Service
  • Charles Fierz, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF
  • John Kelly, Canadian Avalanche Centre
  • Samuel Morin, Meteo France
  • Patrick Nairz, Tyrolean Avalanche Warning Service
  • Ian Tomm, Canadian Avalanche Association
  • Norbert Lanzanasto, Tyrolean Avalanche Warning Service

Minor Change History

  • 6.0.5 (July 28, 2023):
    • Add noFailure to PST.
    • Allow only one failedOn for PST.
  • 6.0.4 (June 21, 2022):
    • Seperate customData from metaData.
    • Allow hardnessBottom and hardnessTop for stratigraphic layer
    • Add layer of concern.
  • 6.0.3 (November 21, 2017):
    • Add value 0 to compression test score.
  • 6.0.2 (November 16, 2017):
    • Add enumeration value other to method of measurement enumerations.
  • 6.0.1 (October 16, 2017):
    • Use fixed direction type (top down).
    • Add element country and region in LocRefType.
    • Add type CountryCode.
    • Simplify person and operation types.
    • Simplify stability test types.
  • 6.0.0 (October 5, 2017):
    • Allow doubles for liquid water contents (lwc); allow multiple profiles of density, lwc, etc but only one instance of each temperature and SSA profile-
    • Avoid duplicates, for example, snow layer density that can be part of the stratProfile, of a densityProfile, of of both.
    • Homogenise the schema.
    • Homogenise meta data usage.
    • Delete instances of types that are not used.
    • Add timeRef element.
    • Add application and applicationVersion element.
    • Rename snowHeight to height and swe to waterEquivalent.

Supporting Organisations

Available Files

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